Grafting is a technique by which one can have fruits of other varieties on a tree, but the fruits should be of the same genes as one can grow distinct types of oranges on a single tree. You can also use this method of grafting other varieties of vegetables on the same plant.
Why did they start grafting?
There are some kinds of trees that have a strong defense system and root system which protect the trees from any problem, but the fruits are not very delicious because the trees put all their energy into their protection. On the other hand, some trees become so weak and fall down because they put all their energy into making tasty fruits. In this case, they started using the grafting techniques to get delicious fruits on a strong tree.
What is the technique of grafting?
In grafting, the upper part of a branch or stem of a tree or plant is attached to the lower part of another tree or plant. The upper part is called scion and the lower one is called root. They make unique cuts on both the parts and then join them in such a way that they stick together, and both of them should come in contact with their cambium layer. This is the layer that is found mostly under the upper layer of the branch. Thus, the joint is covered with clay, tape, or anything depending upon the requirements or method.
How many types of grafting are there?
There are various methods of grafting, and they choose according to the type of the plant, time of the year, or some other conditions for a special grafting method to be chosen. You should try to learn something new, so you should get some plants by doing online shopping for plants,and then you can try to do the grafting. This is not something which you can get from the market as you cannot buy a plant from the market which can bear fruit of other varieties or more than one variety. The following are the methods of grafting which you can try on different types of plants.
Whip and tongue grafting
Whip and tongue method of grafting is used in small branches. In this method, the scion and root should have the same diameter. The sloping cut is made on both scion and root in almost the same way so that they can join together properly without leaving any space. Thereafter, you can make a cleft using a knife on both scion and root branches at the same position on the sloping cut and of the same size. This cut is made similar so that the scion and root fit in each other completely without leaving any space. After inserting them properly into each other’s cleft, you should cover the graft with a tape so as to provide support and to protect it from dirt or any other things which can cause the failure of grafting. You can try this on your plants which you have purchased by getting online delivery of plants or from any other nursery, but you should take care that plants should be of the same genes.
In this method, the scion is inserted under the bark of a tree, and one can attach more than one scion of other types on one tree. For this method you need the central branches of the tree, so you should cut the upper branches in small sections as if you will cut directly from the main branch itself then it can put a strain on the main branch. After removing the small branches, you should make the cut smooth with the help of a clean knife because uneven cuts can have debris that can halt the process of grafting. After making the cut smooth, you should prepare the scions to insert them in the bark. The sharp sloping cuts are made on opposite sides below the scion just like a bevel, and these cuts should be thin and strong enough to be inserted under the bark. Next, the cut is made under the bark to insert the scion, and then, the scion is inserted. After this, they cover the graft with a tape to protect it from losing moisture, and you should apply a coat of protecting agents.
There are also other methods like cleft graft, modified cleft, and lateral graft. While doing you should take care that the plants or trees on which you want to do grafting should be in their dormant period. The knives or other tools used for grafting should be clean, otherwise, there can be a chance of any disease due to infection. You can keep scions in the refrigerator for some time for using them later, but these should also be in their dormant periods.